The Family of General Henry Ware Lawton
Born on March 31, 1855 before the Civil War, Mary Craig Lawton was the oldest of seven children born to Alexander "Aleck" and Annie McCown Craig:
- Mary Craig, wife of Henry Ware Lawton (March 31,1855 - January 5, 1934)
- Aleck Craig (November 21, 1856 – December 25, 1923)
- Fanny Craig (February 9, 1859 - March 14, 1933)
- Alice Craig, wife of Austin L. Peay (April 19, 1860-December 13, 1881)
- Burr Harrison McCown Craig (November 15, 1863 - November 1, 1929)
- Louise Craig, wife of Samuel Culbertson (October 26, 1865 - September 10, 1938)
- Merton Craig (1869 - October 24, 1922)
Her father owned a retail and wholesale hat and fur business in downtown Louisville, and the family lived on Walnut Street (editor's note: now Muhammad Ali Blvd.) a few blocks away, where Louisville Gardens stands today.
In 1864, when Mary was nine years old, her parents purchased Edgewood at auction and moved to Pewee Valley. Her father was able to commute to his Louisville mercantile on the Accommodation or Short Train, and the move brought the children much closer to their maternal grandparents, the Rev. Burr Hamilton and Mary McLung Thompson McCown, who had been operating the Forest Academy school for boys in what is now Anchorage since 1855.
Family Background Reflects, Shapes Regional History
Mamie’s family history was deeply intertwined with Pewee Valley and the surrounding Louisville region’s growth and development. Her maternal roots included a famed grandfather whose work at well-known local private schools contributed to the region’s reputation as an elite and civilized enclave, while her merchant father’s hat making business exemplified Louisville’s robust commercial development in the mid-1800’s.
Mamie’s maternal grandfather, Reverend Burr Hamilton McCown, left an enduring stamp on Mamie’s moral and intellectual character. Born in Bardstown, Kentucky on August 25, 1806[i] McCown’s pride in his own family roots almost certainly permeated the next generations and perhaps made Mamie feel bound to that legacy. In a letter to one of his daughters McCown once referred to his first ancestors to arrive in what is now the United States as six brothers who migrated from county Tyrone, Ireland, in 1728. According to McCown, the brothers were descendants of a Presbyterian family that had previously moved to Ireland to escape religious persecution. McCown’s father, Alexander, was a soldier in the war of independence and later a Kentucky pioneer who joined the Kentucky militia in the War of 1812[ii].
McCown’s intellectual and religious development was ahead of its time in terms of open-mindedness and acceptance. The child of Protestant parents, he benefited in his youth from Bardstown’s status as home to St. Joseph’s, one of the best-reputed schools in the then half-settled state of Kentucky and in the Western region overall, and which he attended. It was a Catholic school where McCown befriended well-known religious leaders of the day and learned multiple languages, but his most important lesson probably came from his experience as a Protestant student among Catholic teachers and classmates. A contemporary to McCown credits this formative experience with the “wide tolerance and advanced liberality which characterized the man in after life,” and which rubbed off on his daughter and, later, his granddaughter Mamie.
Reverend McCown’s first wife, Mary McClung Thompson—Mamie’s grandmother—was a prominent citizen in her own right. As the daughter of a Mercer county family descended from an English officer who had resigned his British military commission to support the patriots in the Revolutionary War, Mary’s own historical pedigree matched her husband’s. The couple’s eldest daughter, Anna “Annie” E. McCown—Mamie’s mother—was born on February 11, 1834 in Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky. Their son, Alexander “Aleck,” was born in 1836, and a second daughter, Letitia, in 1840. The McCowns settled in Anchorage, Kentucky in 1856 and opened a private school, Forest Academy[iii], which soon became known as one of the best educational institutions in Kentucky[iv], and whose presence contributed to the region’s rise in stature as an enclave of high society.
Annie Craig in her youth followed in her teacher father’s footsteps, working as a governess and instructing school. Later in life she often emphasized to her own family the redeeming value of education for helping people rise out of poverty[v]. In 1873 she worked to establish a private, non-denominational educational institution for young ladies in Pewee Valley.[vi] When Annie McCown married Alexander Craig, Mamie’s father, in Goshen, Oldham County, Kentucky, on February 13, 1854, it was reverend McCown who performed the ceremony.[vii]
On Mamie’s paternal side, her father, Alexander Craig, did not appear to have famous roots. Census records indicate his children were never even quite sure where he was born—in various records over the years they listed him as born in Missouri[viii], Ohio,[ix] and Pennsylvania[x]. Nonetheless, he became well-known for his successful hat and fur business that thrived during the 1850s and 1860s. The business’s links across the nation and even to Europe reflected Louisville’s emerging status in the 1850s as a booming commercial and industrial center. It benefited naturally from its proximity to the river, and as of 1855, the new Louisville and Frankfort Railroad linked it overland to the rest of the nation.
Aleck Craig’s store at 485 Main Street occupied a corner building that as of early 1851 had undergone renovations that cemented the company as “…not only one of the leading establishments in their line in Louisville, but in the whole West,” according to the same article. An ad in 1852 boasted that “but a few years have elapsed since all the hats sold in this market were the product of eastern factories…” and now “Western merchants are fully aware of the value of Louisville as a market for hats…” Another article that same year notes Hayes, Craig and Co.’s reputation throughout the South and West of the US, noting that their wholesale sales reach 100,000 dollars while their retail trade brings an additional 50,000. Their fur business brings about 35,000 annually, from a market that goes as far as London and Leipsie. They employ 25-30 people.[xi] Within the next five years, the shop expanded to take over two adjoining properties where Craig and his business partners used the buildings’ upper stories for order work and for their wholesale business. Advertisements and favorable newspaper articles in local papers boasted the shop’s stock of hats of all styles and materials, featuring “fur, silk and wool from the finest to the coarsest, of every size, shape, and color…” In wintertime, ensured a supply of furs, muffs, boas and pelerines.” One such article describes huge piles of hat boxes moving hourly from Hays & Craig’s facility to points of sale within Louisville as well as nationwide[xii]. By the eve of the Civil War in 1860 the store had moved to 607 West Main Street[xiii]. Aleck went on buying trips to Europe, as evidenced by his letters back home to Annie[xiv].
Annie and Aleck Craig’s household was a loving, and worldly environment for Mamie to grow up. After Mamie’s birth in 1855, five more siblings soon followed: Aleck (November 21, 1856- January 5, 1934); Fannie (February 9, 1859 – March 14, 1933); Alice (April 19, 1860 – December 13, 1881); Burr Harrison “Harry” (November 15, 1863 – November 1, 1929); Louise (October 26, 1865 – September 10, 1938); and Merton (1869 – October 24, 1922). Aleck’s work and its success not only brought in an income that permitted a very comfortable lifestyle for the large family, but also brought with it an awareness of the world, culture, style, and fashion. Education was a household theme as it was in Annie’s childhood home, with Annie and Aleck becoming founding members of a local college for young ladies[xv]. Annie Craig was a loving matriarch whose guidance over her household left a strong impression on Mamie. Annie Fellows Johnston wrote of her—via a character based on Annie—as “stately and dignified,” noting that her warmth and her loving manner balanced her aversion for dirty hands or rumpled collars at the dinner table. According to Annie Fellows Johnston, Annie Craig was the kind of grandmother who expected children to behave, tolerated no shenanigans, and inspired good behavior through both modeling and discipline. It was a style that shaped Mamie’s own view of her role. Years later while raising her own family, Mamie wrote to Annie that she strove to be as good a mother to her own daughter as Annie was to her.
Mamie was five years old when the Civil War began. From her home in Louisville she would have witnessed the city’s transformation into a bustling hub transporting goods and soldiers to furnish the ongoing war efforts. Kentucky remained neutral during the war and Louisville became an important staging center for Union troops, but the region also harbored numerous Confederate supporters due to the importance of the slave trade to the region’s economy. Mary’s maternal uncle, Dr. Aleck McCown, joined the confederate army in 1861[xvi] as a surgeon[xvii]. She probably observed how her grandfather, Reverend McCown, continued to treat Union and Confederate supporters equally after having watched his beloved current and former students depart to support both sides. Reverend McCown continued to open the doors of his home and his Forest Academy school to both Union and Confederate supporters. It was an unbiased stance that matched that of the State he lived in and surely influenced his family’s views of the conflict.
After the war ended and when Mamie was nine years old, her parents purchased Edgewood, a home in Pewee Valley, at auction. It could very well have been Reverend McCown, then living just two miles from the property, who noticed it go up for sale and encouraged his daughter and her husband to purchase it and make a move that would bring the growing brood closer to their maternal grandparents. Barely a dozen miles of railroad connected Pewee to Louisville via the Louisville and Frankfort Railroad, ensuring that Aleck could commute to his shop. Edgewood became the center of Mamie’s family life, exerting a gravitational pull from whose draw she never fully departed.
Pewee Valley Upbringing Shapes Mamie
A secluded but connected locale occupied by Louisville’s elite, Pewee Valley offered Mamie and her siblings a sheltered, small-town rural upbringing a stone’s throw from the busy industrial center. Unfortunately, Aleck Craig did not live to enjoy Pewee for long. He died in early 1869 barely four years after the family made it their home. The cause of his death is unknown and came suddenly, leaving Annie pregnant with her sixth child. The loss probably thrust the Mamie, as the eldest daughter and then in her early teens, into the role of a second mother caring for her young siblings. Fortunately for them, tight-knit family ties almost certainly provided a safety net. Reverend McCown, who held a special affection for his oldest daughter and her growing family, and had visited them often at their home in Louisville[xviii], probably stepped in to play the role of patriarch after Aleck’s death. He remained an influential presence in the Craig household throughout Mamie’s childhood and youth. Through such close involvement, McCown shaped his beloved granddaughter’s moral fabric, her sense of direction and purpose in life, and her resourceful propensity for initiative and.
Also fortunate for the large brood, especially in an era when it would have been deemed “improper” for a widow and mother of the wealthier class to work, they managed to remain financially stable despite the loss of Aleck. The Craig business was dissolved in January 1869 following his death[xix], and Alec Craig’s portion sold to fellow Pewee Valley resident Orville Truman, who Aleck had then but recently brought into the business.[xx] The money from this sale, supplemented later by inheritance from Reverend McCown and other occasional income, was sufficient to enable Annie and her children to live comfortably.
Life went on for Mamie and her siblings, who enjoyed a childhood and youth built around community, friends, education, and compassion. Mamie grew up with a batch of servants in the home, including a gardener and in at least one instance four female servants who probably managed cooking, cleaning, and laundry.[xxi] The house was always open to the community that surrounded them and their life revolved around social occasions. Local press noted that “the Craig home was always crowded with young persons, who danced in the evenings, played croquet and tennis and practiced at archery.” Mamie and her sisters became belles of Pewee and nearby Louisville.[xxii] Mamie developed an appreciation for a good social gathering and a flare for planning such festivities, that resulted in a degree of party-throwing expertise that was unmatched in its capacity to plan a fete with all the trappings of decorations and entertainments.
In the long run, success for the Craig children was a mixed bag. A Pewee Valley neighbor who knew the whole family asserted that “the Craig women were brilliant but the men were ne’er-do-wells.” While Mamie and her three sisters, on balance, grew into matriarchs in their own right managing households or independent careers, their brothers never held consistent employment of note and never moved away from their childhood home. Brother Merton “had no regular occupation” but worked various jobs including as an officer in Battery A of the old First Kentucky Regiment, and later served on the regimental staff of Colonels Biscoe-Hindman and William B. Haldeman. He ended up in Seattle where he committed suicide. Other brother Alexander was an invalid, and Harry/Burr was mentally retarded and dependant his whole life on his older sister, Fannie, to manage his personal affairs and protect him from the influence of local miscreants. In one piece of family lore, Fannie gave Burr money to go out and buy a chicken for dinner. Having accomplished the task, he put the chicken in his pocket and was on his way home when he ran into two of the Truman-Knock brothers, local miscreants. Somehow they discovered that Burr had money on him leftover from the chicken purchase, and convinced him to use it to to buy alcohol. They took him over to the swamp to embark on a two-day drinking binge as the dead chicken decayed in Burr’s pocket.
In contrast, the Craig daughters on balance grew to become society figureheads in Pewee Valley and beyond. Alice was the outlier, having died shortly after giving birth to her first daughter. Louise married into a wealthy Louisville family, and Mamie’s own marriage and contributions to her husband’s military career gained national renown. Fannie never married, instead becoming the next-generation backbone of the Edgewood household—someone had to care for the helpless Burr and aging Annie—and a mainstay of the Pewee Valley community. A graduate of the Kentucky College for Young Ladies, Fannie followed in her educator grandfather and mothers’ footsteps, teaching at her alma mater and later opening a private school, the Villa Ridge School, in a property behind Edgewood. She taught piano lessons out of her home, and was a very active member of the local Pewee Valley Presbyterian Church where she served as librarian, organist and Sunday school teacher. She was well known to everyone in the community, and Annie Fellows Johnston describes a character based on Fannie as “the life of every party and picnic in the neighbourhood” and “everybody’s confidant.” According to Johnston, Fannie held a special draw for all the local children, who she invited to Edgewood after church to indulge in story sessions and homemade treats like beaten biscuits, candied orange slices, and brandied peaches the size of a half-dollar. In addition to keeping the household running, Fannie’s work brought income to the family at a time when their inheritance from Reverend McCown and Aleck Craig may have begun to run out.
For Mamie’s part, by the time she was in her late twenties, her “expressive grey eyes”[xxiii] conveyed intelligence, spirit, and warmth. She seemed unwilling to show a negative attitude to others, and directed her attention to joyful things. An engaging and effusive comrade, she was affectionate with friends in both word and through her letters, skilled at using language to convey love, affection, support, and praise. She expressed admiration for qualities she saw in those around her including “big-heartedness, broad-mindedness, Christ-like love for his fellow creatures, and charity that thinketh no evil.”[xxiv] They were characteristics that she herself seemed to share. Mamie had established the qualities that would win her a strong following of friends throughout her life, and that would soon play a role in attracting the attentions of the tall, handsome soldier who would become her life partner.
[i] 1897 Mar 7 Profile of McCown
[ii] 1897 Mar 7 Profile
[iii] From “The Village of Anchorage” by Samuel W. Thompson, Published by Anchorage Civic Club, 2004
[iv] 1856 Mar 19 Noble Butler and McCown
[v] Donna interview, August 22 2018
[vi] According to “History & Families Oldham County Kentucky: The First Century 1824-1924,” published by the Oldham County Historical Society in 1996, page 248
[vii] 1854 Feb 14 Marriage…
[viii] (1880 census
[ix] 1900 and 1910 censuses
[x] 1920 census
[xi] (1852 Hayes Craig & Co. Description
[xii] 1885 Hays Craig & Co store description
[xiii] 1860 Louisville Directory & Advertiser
[xiv] Donna’s interview, August 2018
[xv] Donna interview, August 22 2018
[xvi] 1861 Aug 23 Dr. Aleck
[xvii] 1881 Aug 9 Rev McCown wri…Hunt Morgan
[xviii] (1897 Mar 7 Profile)
[xix] (1869 Jan 25 Dissolution of Craig Truman…)
[xx] (see Truman House page on website)
[xxi] 1880 census
[xxii] 1899 Dec 20 Mary Lawton a Kentucky Girl from…
[xxiii] 1900 San Fransisco C
all Mary Lawton speaks…
[xxiv] 1907 MCL Pewee KY June 30
Boy Meets Girl: Mamie’s Courtship and Marriage to Henry W. Lawton
Mary’s life was forever changed when she met and married Henry Ware Lawton, an up-and-coming Captain in the United States Army. His career took her far from Pewee Valley, though Mamie’s home and family were never far from her thoughts, and the values and experiences she picked up in Pewee never left her.
Henry recorded their first meeting in a letter he penned to a friend in 1887[i]. According to his account, the two met by chance while both were passing through the city of St. Louis, then a major urban center connecting the growing nation’s East and West. “I had been acting Inspector General of the Department of Arkansas, Head Quarters in Little Rock,” Henry explained to the friend, “and was on my way from there to take part in the trouble in Colorado, in the spring of ’81… I stopped over a few days…” The cause for Mary’s visit to St. Louis is unknown, but it is possible that she was being deliberately circulated through broader social circles in the hopes of encountering possible suitors. Her pool of options in the tiny community of Pewee Valley would have been limited to begin with, but was especially so given the staggering losses that Kentucky’s male population had experienced in the Civil War. An obvious solution, especially in the eyes of a socially-inclined and caring mother like Annie Craig, would have been to expand her daughter’s prospects by making visits to friends in other cities, and the family almost certainly would have had connections in St. Louis established from Aleck’s hatmaking years if from no other source. If the plan was indeed deliberate, it worked!
When the couple first crossed paths it was a fortunate chance encounter. As Henry noted, “one day when I got into the Hotel elevator, a young lady got in the other side from the ladies entrance. I liked her looks, met and was introduced that evening.” Mamie might very well have liked Henry’s looks in return. He was a towering six foot four inches tall and handsome, sporting thick dark hair and gentle dark eyes over an enormous floppy mustache. His image as a soldier may also have played an initial role in attracting Mamie, who later alluded in a letter to a friend to a longstanding admiration for “uniformed men.”
Despite such sentiments, Mamie must have known choosing to pursue a relationship with a soldier would potentially pull her away from her cultivated Pewee Valley home to rough-and-tumble, often lonely military posts on civilization’s fringes. Her grandfather’s tales of ancestors serving in the Revolutionary War, or Mamie’s own familiarity with the sight of Civil War soldiers—including her own uncle—during her childhood, may have opened her mind to a soldier suitor. And once they got to know each other, their complementary personalities probably overshadowed any doubts.
At first glance, it might have seemed that Henry Lawton’s lower middle class background would clash with Mary’s refined Pewee Valley upbringing. The son of a millwright raised on his uncle’s Indiana farm, Henry was accustomed to a modest lifestyle, hard work, and rough country living. He enlisted to fight in the Civil War at the tender age of 16 and later turned down a stint at Harvard Law School to return to the army life that had gotten into his blood. By the time he met Mamie, years spent in army encampments had honed his innate high tolerance for hard work and discomfort. He possessed modest tastes, some introverted tendencies, and a disdain for fuss and ceremony. Mary was the opposite on most of those areas. But perhaps more important: they shared an ability to connect with people and to form close and lasting friendships. Henry’s loyalty to his community of soldiers mirrored Mamie’s affection for Pewee Valley community. He kept in close touch with childhood friends despite the fact that he seldom returned to his hometown, and was very open in sharing his thoughts and emotions with them throughout his life. In commanding his soldiers, Henry was always was on the lookout for their welfare, and a military colleague recalled years later how Henry, even when serving in leadership positions, “was one of the boys himself, and could work with them and sympathize with them,” noting that Henry “never considered himself better than anybody else.”[ii]
Henry departed St. Louis the day after the couple met, according to the letter he later wrote to his friend, but they must have kept in touch. They became engaged about six months after their first meeting, while Mamie was on a chaperoned visit with friends to the post in Texas where Lawton was then serving. The delighted chaperone reported back to Mamie’s mother, Annie, with gushing praise about her future new son-in-law. They launched plans for a wedding in 1882[iii] that probably would have been quite a production; one of Mamie’s sisters married later to much fanfare and extensive coverage in the local papers.[iv] But the plan changed in the fall of 1881 when Mamie wrote to Lawton to come to Pewee Valley as soon as possible because her younger sister, Alice, had been taken seriously ill. Fearing death, Alice wanted to be present when Mamie and Lawton were married and had asked that the wedding date be moved up. Lawton requested a leave of absence for November 1-December 31 to go to Pewee Valley to be married.
Mamie and Henry Lawton were married at Edgewood on the twelfth of December, 1881. Throughout the stately home, fires probably blazed in wrought iron fireplaces to combat the wintry cold outside. The ceremony was a quick, quiet, and sad affair that took place at Alice’s bedside in one of the high-ceilinged upstairs bedrooms. Minister S.E. Bass—Lawton’s former commander from his Civil War regiment, the 30th Indiana—conducted the ceremony. Annie Craig served as witnesses, and Alice’s doctor and husband were also present. Alice died the next day. Shortly after, Mamie packed her things and, likely following a tearful farewell at Pewee Valley’s tiny train depot, boarded a train to Louisville with her new husband en route to her new life as an army wife in the West.
 1907 MCL Pewee KY June 30
[i] (Zookeeper’s letter, from Rudy)
[ii] (1899 Dec 21 Philadelphia Enquirer)
[iii] [per Rudy’s email, mid/late April 2015]
[iv] (Little Colonel Website)
Mamie’s Time in the West and as a Military Wife
Immediately following the couple’s wedding, Mamie accompanied Henry to a succession of military posts across the southwest. They proceeded first to the headquarters of the Military District of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico Territory, where Lawton served as Acting Engineer from January, 1882 to October, 1883. They later moved to Fort Stanton, New Mexico Territory, where Lawton commanded troops until May, 1884. Finally, duty took them to Fort Huachuca, Arizona Territory, which was their home until July 1887. Mamie’s brother, Merton Craig, years later told a reporter that “my sister’s devotion to her husband was admirable. She always wanted to be with him, and she felt that she could brave any danger that he could . . . When he would get orders to go anyplace Mrs. Lawton would immediately begin to pack up and get ready to accompany him.”[i] Such devotion came with sacrifice. Life on a military post was rough for even the toughest soldiers, who commonly complained of extreme temperatures, filthy conditions, bad food, and pervasive disease. Henry’s work often took him away from the fort for days, weeks, or even months at a time, leaving Mamie to care for the household alone. Nonetheless, her optimistic nature and love of community enabled her to thrive in this new world that represented a harsh change from her comfortable Pewee Valley home.
Departing Pewee, Mamie exchanged groomed lanes that veined gentle hills for dirt roads that scored dusty grassland. She swapped dignified trees that blotted shade across civilized lawns for starving oaks that twisted toward white-hot sky. Fortunately, Mamie’s optimistic bent and eye for the beauty around her found plenty to enjoy in the dramatic western expanse. If Annie Fellows Johnson’s descriptions of fort life in her Little Colonel books are, indeed, based on comments Mamie shared with her, they recount a world in which rugged nature offered freedom and joy. Henry understood his wife’s pleasure in noticing the beauty of her surroundings and helped feed her interest. While away from fort Huachuca on campaign, he once wrote to her about the interesting bugs and plants he encountered, and even planned to send her specimens of an interesting red bug, expecting that she might enjoy using it “to make strawberry lemonade without any strawberries.”[ii]
Instead of the physical comforts of her Pewee Valley home, Mamie faced heat, cold, dust, and at times squalid camp conditions. Fortunately, some luxuries afforded by Lawton’s rank would have softened the adjustment to a large degree. The couple lived in officers’ quarters, which were much more comfortable than the barracks that housed the unmarried soldiers. Mamie also likely had household help—Henry hired a “chinaman” to assist while they were living in Huachuca. Nonetheless, their family was not immune to the worst impacts of a hard lifestyle. Probably due to dirty conditions and lack of proper medical care, they lost three babies during their time in the West.
Living on military forts, Mamie also grappled with isolation as never before. Instead of a commuter rail offering multiple daily links to a bustling metropolitan center, she could access the outside world only by intermittent stagecoach or military mail deliveries. Instead of the elite company of well-mannered gentlemen and girlfriends’ frequent visits she enjoyed in Pewee, Mamie found herself among dirty, crass, and uneducated soldiers and a small pool of potential female companions. This very isolation, however, spawned close-knit communities that probably went the furthest in making Mamie feel at home. The communities of families she encountered were probably not unlike what she knew in Pewee Valley, and likely thrilled to welcome a new member with Mamie’s easy skill at conversation and flare for planning get-togethers and excursions. Just as her own family had always opened their Pewee Valley home to neighbors, Mamie opened the Lawton home to Henry’s military colleagues and their families. Such friends later recalled for reporters that, “Mrs. Lawton…was known to nearly every officer in the service. To them all she represented the truest type of a soldier’s wife, and every officer in the service from the youngest Lieutenant to the commanding General was ready to do anything in his power for Mrs. Lawton.” In addition to charming her peers, Mary’s winning personality and flair as a hostess helped her impress Henry’s superiors, making her a boon to her husband’s career. On at least one occasion, Henry while away on a campaign wrote to ask Mamie to entertain his superiors when they visited, confident that they would depart charmed.
The Lawtons returned to civilization in July 1887 after Henry’s work in the 1886 Geronimo campaign earned him a coveted posting within the Inspector General’s Department at Fort Meyer, Virginia. They departed the West having experienced its worst hardships and won its greatest rewards in the form of a lasting community of friends and colleagues. In later years Mamie rejoiced at reunions with the families she and Henry met during their time in the West, proof that she used her time with them to build close and permanent friendships.
 1903 Mrs. Lawton is visited by soldiers
[i] (1899 Dec 20 CJ Death of Gen Lawton)
[ii] (Lib congress letters)